The main economic problems of the coming years remain associated with the development of gardening. Indeed, demographic and economic growth has generated significant needs in the energy, water, urban and inter-city transport sectors, which Jordan intends to address in the context of public-private partnerships and with the support of major multilateral or bilateral donors.
Providing significant development opportunities, the agro-processing industry in Jordan showed modest growth in 2016. Regional security concerns hinder efforts to attract large international investment and hinder weak domestic economic growth. state investment potential. However, some progress has been made thanks to public-private partnerships, especially in the energy sector, which indicates a more positive growth potential.
Jordan relies almost entirely on oil and gas imports to meet its energy needs. Thus, according to the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of Jordan, 96% of energy (especially raw materials) is imported. Thus, Jordan’s energy bill has a big impact on national income. In an effort to reduce the country’s dependence on hydrocarbon imports even after the supply of Egyptian natural gas has ceased, the energy sector is currently undergoing major modernization, including the implementation of the Jordanian Energy Master Plan for 2008-2020. Indeed, given that by 2020 electricity demand is expected to increase to more than 5,000 MW, it seems necessary for Jordan to urgently limit its energy dependence.
Located in a regional environment marked by crises, Jordan seeks to maintain its stability and identity. This is an example of moderation and modernity in the Middle East due to its political and economic choice. The kingdom has a political asset that gives it financial benefits. Its development enjoys the attention of large Western countries and monarchies of the Persian Gulf due to its status as a central element of stability in the region and its ability to guarantee the tranquility of its borders. Jordan, a medium-sized emerging economy, very open to foreign trade and supported by its asylum position for the capitals of Iraq, Syria and Palestine, however, is relatively vulnerable.
The World Bank classifies it as a “middle-income country.” It is heavily dependent on imports, and its budget is fragile due to large and growing debt; even if the latter is not excessive and well covered. In addition, Jordan is limited in its natural resources: lack of hydrocarbons, water resources are among the lowest in the world, cultivated land makes up only 6% of its area. Its mineral resources are important, however, mainly phosphate and potassium. Its GDP is determined by the services sector: financial (the first bank is the Jordanian bank), as well as tourism, trade and real estate. The manufacturing sector accounts for less than 30% of GDP.
Belgian companies planning to enter the Jordanian market should focus on understanding the specifics of this market, as well as the possibility of using Jordan as a regional center for certain types of products or services. Close collaboration with Jordanian agents, distributors or partners is essential to ensure competitiveness and successful market entry.
Jordan’s commercial activities are concentrated in its capital, Amman, as well as in large provincial cities such as Aqaba, Zarca and Irbid. Indeed, there is a very large disparity in cultural behavior and, consequently, in the consumption structure between the population of the capital and the rest of the country. The people of Amman, mainly from the West, lived or traveled abroad and therefore are more open to Western culture.
For the rest of the country, they live in a more traditional and conservative way in terms of consumption. The country’s retail sector includes various international, regional and local brands and has several new entrants.
International and regional players face stiff competition from local Jordanian channels. Indeed, one of the key features of the Jordanian retail market is that there are many local players, which is not the case in most Arab countries.